What is plastic
History of plastic
General plastics that we are familiar with and used today are synthesized by human beings over the last hundred years. Such as packaging Equipment And various tools If we go back to study the history of the world's first plastic synthesis Would have to return to the beginning of the year 1863 when the billiard production company in the United States announced a prize of 10,000 dollars to those who could find ivory substitutes for use in making billiard balls.Which at that time was a highly popular sport Therefore causing many African elephants to be hunted for almost extinct tusks. John Wesley Hyatt, an American carpenter, was one who was interested in trying to find the material. That can be used instead of ivory After several years of experimentation One night he received an accident from a sharp hand while mixing sawdust and glue.He then wears a wound with a colodion, an astringent made from nitrocellulose dissolved in ether and alcohol. And by coincidence, he made six drugs on the table When returning again, found that Dry medicine is a sticky pad.
Mr. Heet continued the experiment until he found that if adding camphor to the ether mixture, the material that was later called celluloid, which is a material that has the appropriate properties to make a billiard ball And various products Because it has properties that are resistant to oil, water and acid, clear, or make it easy to color, and cheap, popular to make a billiard ball And piano keys instead of ivory or make combs for animal carapace.n addition, it is also used to make jewelry, shirts, buttons, children's toys and film and photography Therefore considered celluloid to be the world's first semi-synthetic plastic due to the improvement of the cellulose structure which is a natural material It is the beginning of the plastic industry. But because of cellulose Is a plastic that is easily flammable and explosive. If there is a high nitro group (NO2), it is not popular at a later time. Makes materials made from cellulose not easy to find at present.But also popularly used to make table tennis balls The cellulose that is still seen is mostly old. Which is needed by collectors.
Later in 1907, Leo Baekeland, a chemist, discovered how to produce Bekelite, which was named the world's first synthetic plastic. First from organic matter, small molecules Which is caused by the reaction between formaldehyde and phenol beakerite into hard plastic Good heat resistance And can be molded into various shapes Can be molded using heat.Making it beautiful, colorful and inexpensive In the beginning, bakelite was used to make insulation, electrical wires and electrical parts. Later, it was used to produce a variety of household products, accessories and jewelry that were colorful. And inexpensive And became a material that has been used in thousands of different uses.
During the 30-40 years, until 1942, during the Second World War, Bekeryl was produced as a phone. Pilot glasses And various weapons from various colorful products that had become black until the war ended. Plastic injection molding technology (injection mold) has been developed. And new plastics, such as nylon (nylon), vinyl (acrylic) or acrylic, were born from the research of scientists Therefore the use of bakelite is greatly reduced.However, currently, bakelite is still used as a coating. And produce parts for electrical appliances that are of special quality and heat resistance
Appliances and equipment made from bakelite in the past have turned into antiques that are needed by today's collectors. Thus making imitation products using resin or other types of plastic such as acrylic. The selection of authentic bakery products must be tested by experts. The best way to check is to soak in warm water. If it is genuine bakelite, it has a chemical-like odor (Formaldehyde) if the cellulose is smells like Vickswapo (camphor), but the imitation will not have any smell.